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Monday, August 1, 2011

Buah Pinggang Gagal berfungsi ~ Kidney Failure

Kidney Failure

Medical Author: Benjamin C. Wedro, MD, FAAEM
Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

Kidney Failure

Acute Kidney Failure Symptoms

The following symptoms may occur with acute kidney failure. Some people have no symptoms, at least in the early stages. The symptoms may be very subtle.
  • Decreased urine production
  • Body swelling
  • Problems concentrating
  • Confusion
  • Fatigue
  • Lethargy
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Metallic taste in the mouth
Seizures and coma may occur in very severe acute kidney failure

What are the kidneys?

The kidneys play key roles in body function, not only by filtering the blood and getting rid of waste products, but also by balancing levels of electrolyte levels in the body, controlling blood pressure, and stimulating the production of red blood cells.
The kidneys are located in the abdomen toward the back, normally one on each side of the spine. They get their blood supply through the renal arteries directly from the aorta and send blood back to the heart via the renal veins to the vena cava. (The term "renal" is derived from the Latin name for kidney.)
The kidneys have the ability to monitor the amount of body fluid, the concentrations of electrolytes like sodium and potassium, and the acid-base balance of the body. They filter waste products of body metabolism, like urea from protein metabolism and uric acid from DNA breakdown. Two waste products in the blood can be measured: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr).
When blood flows to the kidney, sensors within the kidney decide how much water to excrete as urine, along with what concentration of electrolytes. For example, if a person is dehydrated from exercise or from an illness, the kidneys will hold onto as much water as possible and the urine becomes very concentrated. When adequate water is present in the body, the urine is much more dilute, and the urine becomes clear. This system is controlled by renin, a hormone produced in the kidney that is part of the fluid and blood pressure regulation systems of the body.
Kidneys are also the source of erythropoietin in the body, a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. Special cells in the kidney monitor the oxygen concentration in blood. If oxygen levels fall, erythropoietin levels rise and the body starts to manufacture more red blood cells.
After the kidneys filter blood, the urine is excreted through the ureter, a thin tube that connects it to the bladder. It is then stored in the bladder awaiting urination, when the bladder sends the urine out of the body through the urethra.
Picture of the Kidneys and Urinary Structures

What causes kidney failure?

Kidney failure can occur from an acute situation or from chronic problems.
In acute renal failure, kidney function is lost rapidly and can occur from a variety of insults to the body. The list of causes is often categorized based on where the injury has occurred.
Prerenal causes (pre=before + renal=kidney) causes are due to decreased blood supply to the kidney. Examples of prerenal causes of kidney failure are:
  • hypovolemia (low blood volume) due to blood loss;
  • dehydration from loss of body fluid (for example, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, fever);
  • poor intake of fluids;
  • medication, for example, diuretics ("water pills") may cause excessive water loss; and
  • abnormal blood flow to and from the kidney due to obstruction of the renal artery or vein.
Renal causes of kidney failure (damage directly to the kidney itself) include:
Post renal causes of kidney failure (post=after + renal= kidney) are due to factors that affect outflow of the urine:
  • Obstruction of the bladder or the ureters can cause back pressure because the kidneys continue to produce urine, but the obstruction acts like a dam, and urine backs up into the kidneys. When the pressure increases high enough, the kidneys are damaged and shut down.
  • Prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer may block the urethra and prevents the bladder from emptying.
  • Tumors in the abdomen that surround and obstruct the ureters.
  • Kidney stones. Usually, kidney stones affect only one kidney and do not cause kidney failure. However, if there is only one kidney present, a kidney stone may cause the lone kidney to fail.
Chronic renal failure develops over months and years. The most common causes of chronic renal failure are related to:
Less common causes of chronic renal failure include:

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Kidney Failure - Treatments

The MedicineNet physician editors ask:

What was your treatment for kidney failure?

Kidney Failure - Symptoms at Onset of Disease

The MedicineNet physician editors asked:

The symptoms of kidney failure can vary greatly from patient to patient. What were your symptoms at the onset of your disease?

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Suggested Reading on Kidney Failure by Our Doctors

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Kidney Failure

Disease prevention in men introduction

Routine screening tests are part of basic prevention medicine. All of the following screening tests are commonly available through your doctor. Take an active role in your own health care and discuss screening tests with your doctor early in life. Following is a list of diseases for which screening is recommended along with mention of the commonly used screening tests, which usually are safe and simple and can help detect many diseases before they become harmful.

High blood pressure (hypertension)

About one-sixth of all Americans have high blood pressure and the incidence of this disease increases with age. African-Americans are more likely than other races to have high blood pressure.
High blood pressure can cause arterial disease (atherosclerosis) that can lead to heart attack, congestive heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure.

Tests or procedures for high blood ...

Read the Disease Prevention in Men article »

Petikkan ~ http://www.medicinenet.com/kidney_failure/article.htm

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