Senaman Tua - Another Satisfied Client!
Tuesday, February 22, 2011 4:47 PM
"My name is Christopher K., and I am a humble student of Guro Jeff Davidson in the Filipino and Malaysian martial arts. Lately I had been experiencing some knee and joint stability issues, and thus approached Guro for some advice. At this point, I was introduced to Senaman Tua – the so-called “Old Exercises.” Guro Davidson related the history and effectiveness of Senaman Tua and how much it has helped him.
After learning a basic routine, I have found Senaman Tua to be extremely challenging yet almost profound in what it targets and accomplishes. Through the lower, core, and upper-body exercises I feel my fascia and tendon strength improving. Stability and sensitivity are also increasing. All of this in a martial arts/fitness context.
~*~*~*~Eman Manan~Pun ada juga...
I have a good amount of experience in running and weight-lifting, and I believe they are important for general fitness and muscle stamina. Yet I now believe that Senaman Tua is even more important for the joint fascia and stability needed for greater physical sensitivity and martial prowess. Senaman Tua is the exercise regimen needed to prevent injury and to excel in movement. Even when compared to Yoga, I find it way more useful and beneficial.
Thanks for Senaman Tua!
Sourced from http://balisongplayer.blogspot.com/2011/02/senaman-tua-another-satisfied-client.html
The 'Yoga' of Islamic Prayer
Friday, July 23, 2010 3:14 PM
By Karima Burns, MH, ND
Called “one of the oldest systems of personal development encompassing body, mind and spirit” by the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, yoga has become one of the fastest growing health trends today. It has been renowned for centuries for its curative powers of movement.
Yoga consists of a number of “asnas,” or body positions, which one retains for a desired length of time while either reciting “mantras” or breathing in a rhythmic manner. Its benefits have been researched by many doctors who now recommend it to their patients, by many medical schools such as Harvard, and by many foundations such as the Menninger Foundation.
In fact, yoga has become so popular that secretaries have developed a simplified sitting version that they can do at their desks. The elderly, pregnant women and athletes also have their own versions.
Interestingly, for the millions of people enrolled in yoga classes, the Islamic form of prayer has provided Muslims for fourteen centuries with some of yoga’s same (and even superior) benefits. This simple form of “yoga” offers physical, mental, and spiritual benefits five times a day as Muslims assume certain positions while reciting Qur’an and athkar (remembrances).
Of course, not all the yoga positions are found in the Islamic prayer. However, hospital researchers have concluded that patients benefit from even a simplified version of yoga, and most hospital yoga programs, such as those at the Spaulding Rehabilitation Center in Massachusetts, consist of only five to seven positions.
The Muslim prayer has five positions, and they all (as well as the recitations we make while performing the prayer) have a corresponding relationship with our spiritual and mental well being, according to modern scientific research. The benefits of performing specific movements and recitations each day come from the correct rendition of the position or action itself, the length of time the position is held, and from careful and correct recitation techniques.
Each of the five prayer positions has a corresponding yoga position, and the positions together “activate” all seven “chakras” (energy fields) in the body. The idea of activating a chakra may sound linguistically strange, but it is easier to understand once one translates that word into more familiar language.
Eastern healers believe that each of the chakras correlate to major nerve ganglia that branch forth from the spinal column. Thus, the concept of activating these nerve centers is akin to getting a chiropractic adjustment or installing a medical stimulating device on the spine to correct corresponding bodily malfunctions.
In layman’s terms, the idea of chakras can be understood by thinking about how the sense of “feeling” functions. One notices, when touching any part of the body, that that part responds by being more “awake” and aware. Another part of the body that was not touched, but is along the same nerve pathway, may also respond.
When a person is sitting, for instance, they may not be thinking about their legs, which are momentarily at rest; however, if someone touches them, they will again be “aware” of them. Chakras work in much the same way.
Studies have found that varying areas of the body, when activated by touch, movement or thought, evoke specific emotional and physical responses in much the same way that a smile can evoke the feeling of happiness, and actually increase circulation – even if one was feeling sluggish and unhappy before smiling. This is one of the reasons that it is so important to perfectly perform all of the movements of the Islamic prayer, rather than haphazardly rushing through them.
The Takbir and Al Qiyyam together are very similar to the Mountain Pose in yoga, which has been found to improve posture, balance, and self-awareness. This position also normalizes blood pressure and breathing, thus providing many benefits to asthma and heart patients.
The placement of the hands on the chest during the Qiyyam position are said to activate the solar plexus “chakra,” or nerve pathway, which directs our awareness of self in the world and controls the health of the muscular system, skin, intestines, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and eyes. When the hands are held open for du’a, they activate the heart “chakra,” said to be the center of the feelings of love, harmony, and peace, and to control love and compassion. It also governs the health of the heart, lungs, thymus, immune system, and circulatory system.
Muslim researchers have shown that when Muslims recite the Qur’an, old thoughts, feelings, fears and guilt are released or healed, and blood pressure and stress levels are reduced. Virtually all of the sounds of the Arabic language are uttered while reciting Qur’an, creating a balance in all affected areas of the body.
Some specific sounds, in fact, correspond to major organs in the body. In his research and creation of eurhythmy, Rudolph Steiner (founder of the Waldorf Schools), , found that vibrations made when pronouncing the long vowels, 'A', 'E' and 'U,' stimulated the heart, lungs, and the thyroid, pineal, pituitary, and adrenal glands during laboratory tests.
The position of Ruku is very similar to the Forward Bend Position in yoga. Ruku stretches the muscles of the lower back, thighs, legs and calves, and allows blood to be pumped down into the upper torso. It tones the muscles of the stomach, abdomen, and kidneys. Forming a right angle allows the stomach muscles to develop, and prevents flabbiness in the mid-section.
This position also promotes a greater flow of blood into the upper regions of body – particularly to the head, eyes, ears, nose, brain, and lungs – allowing mental toxins to be released. Over time, this improves brain function and ones personality, and is an excellent stance to maintain the proper position of the fetus in pregnant women.
The Sujud is said to activate the “crown chakra,” which is related to a person’s spiritual connection with the universe around them and their enthusiasm for spiritual pursuits. This nerve pathway is also correlated to the health of the brain, nervous system, and pineal gland. Its healthy function balances ones interior and exterior energies.
In Sujud, we also bend; thus activating the “base chakra,” which controls basic human survival instincts and provides essential grounding. This helps to develop levelheaded and positive thinking along with a highly motivated view of life, and maintains the health of the lymph and skeletal systems, the prostate, bladder, and the adrenal glands. We also bend the “sacral chakra” during Sujud, thus benefiting and toning the reproductive organs.
The position of Al Qaadah, (or Julus) is similar to the Thunderbolt Pose in yoga, which firms the toes, knees, thighs, and legs. It is said to be good for those prone to excessive sleep, and those who like to keep long hours. Furthermore, this position assists in speedy digestion, aids the detoxification of the liver, and stimulates peristaltic action in the large intestine.
Last, but not least, the “throat chakra” is activated by turning the head towards first the right and then the left shoulder in the closing of the prayer. This nerve path is linked to the throat, neck, arms, hands, bronchials, and hearing – effecting individual creativity and communication.
It is believed that a person who activates all seven nerve pathways at least once a day can remain well balanced emotionally, physically and spiritually. Since this is the goal of all sincere Muslims, we all should strive to attain the perfection of stance, recitation, and breathing recommended in the Hadith while performing our prayers – the very same techniques of perfection taught in popular yoga, Tai Chi, and many other exercise classes.
Konsep-konsep HSE dalam Senaman Tua
Wednesday, June 30, 2010 3:03 PM
Oleh Resam Melayu
Dipetik dari http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=401104508670&id=239119141691
Bila memperkatakan tentang kesihatan, keselamatan dan persekitaran (HSE), yang sering terlintas ialah sikap kita yang reaktif terhadap sesuatu insiden. Contohnya, kita hanya merujuk doktor apabila simptom penyakit sudah mula menjengah atau ‘dah kena’. Bila diri sudah diragut, barulah teringin belajar ilmu beladiri. Bila sampah sarap penuh di sungai atau tepi-tepi jalanraya, mulalah dipersalahkan semua pihak kecuali diri sendiri.
ST mampu menyumbang dalam pembinaan pekerja yang sihat, cergas dan tangkas HSE menekankan sikap proaktif atau ambil langkah cegah, tak nak kena, dan sebagainya. Begitulah juga dengan ST, ia adalah langkah proaktif untuk tak nak kena atau tak nak jadi mangsa, samada mangsa kepada penyakit, perbuatan penjahat, atau suasana yang kurang baik.
Tetapi jangan hairan, bila disebut ST (Senaman Tua), masih ada yang rasa janggal dengan bunyi ‘Tua’ itu. “Mungkin kurang glamour agaknye,” itu persepsi WM masa mula-mula cuba mempromosikan ST di dunia korporat dan di kalangan masyarakat umum satu ketika dulu.
Apa pula kaitannya HSE dan ST? Kebiasaan yang berlaku dalam taklimat-taklimat keselamatan HSE ialah penekanan mengamal amalan-amalan kerja yang baik dan selamat, bermula dari diri pekerja itu sendiri. Pekerja-pekerja yang terlibat dalam pekerjaan berisiko tinggi selalu diperingatkan dengan pelbagai slogan, gambar, poster dan sebagainya sebagai usaha bagi mengelakkan kecederaan berlaku.
Antaranya yang termudah ialah cara atau gaya mengangkat beban. Walaupun ia tidak perlu diajar sebab dirasakan terlalu mudah, namun teknik yang tidak ergonomik buleh mengakibatkan pengamalnya mengalami sakit pinggang untuk jangka masa panjang akibat amalan yang berulang-ulang.
Amalan mengikut piawaian HSE, menghendaki pengamalnya membuat angkatan beban dengan tidak menunduk kepala dan badan kebawah dari kedudukan pinggang di atas, sebaliknya menurunkan keseluruhan bahagian badan hingga ke punggung ke bawah dan kemudian mengangkat beban rapat di sekitar pusat (pusat graviti manusia).
Persamaannya dengan ST ialah dalam memastikan kedudukan berdiri yang tepat selepas melakukan teknik yang pertama (selepas mengambil ‘Nafas Melayu’). Berdiri lurus nama diberi. Ada yang sebut seperti berdiri dalam solat, berdiri alif, dan sebagainya. Walau apapun nama diberi, konsepnya ialah mulakan dengan kedudukan berdiri lurus yang dipandukan kepada petua mengukur jarak kaki. Untuk melakukannya, pengamal diminta menurunkan anggota badan di bahagian atas bersekali dengan punggung hingga akhirnya kepada kedudukan seperti mencangkung.
Bagi WM inilah salah satu dari ribuan konsep HSE yang ada dalam ST. Banyak lagi sebenarnya kalau hendak dikupas kerana gerakan ST buleh dikatakan menyeluruh dan merangkumi pelbagai kedudukan seperti berdiri, duduk, baring, langkah dan sebagainya. Kalau diteliti lagi, gerakan-gerakan dari sunnah Rasul SAW seperti memanah, berenang, dan berpedang juga ada dalam ST.
Maka memang wajarlah nama ‘Tua’ itu diberi oleh pengasasnya. ‘Tua’ yang dikatakan diambil dari kata ‘petua’ pun sudah cukup merumuskan bahawa ia adalah satu senaman yang mungkin dicemburui oleh orang luar yang ingin memilikinya. Bagi WM secara peribadi, petua ialah seperti sifir atau ‘rule of thumb’ yang buleh dipecah dan dirungkai mengikut keperluan semasa.
‘Tua’ juga memperingatkan pengamalnya kepada orang tua atau zaman tua kita nanti. Falsafahnya, bila usia meningkat dan bergelar ‘tua’, maka ilmu, pengalaman, sikap, dan amal akan semakin mantap. Dan bukan semakin berilmu, semakin sombong pula kita. Itulah sebabnya,orang tua-tua kita juga selalu mengikat kita dengan adat resam padi – semakin berisi, semakin ia tunduk. Bila semua ciri-ciri ini dimiliki oleh orang tua-tua kita, maka tiada sebablah kenapa kita tidak menghormati mereka atau memandang rendah kepada mereka. Ingatlah, suatu hari nanti kita juga akan bergelar ‘tua’.
Apa kaitan Silat Melayu Keris Lok 9 dan Senaman Tua?
Thursday, June 17, 2010 9:27 AM
Ramai orang mengenali guru Azlan Ghanie sebagai pengasas Silat Melayu Keris Lok 9 dan juga Senaman Tua, tapi lama-kelamaan sudah muncul pertanyaan daripada pengamal: Apa kaitannya Lok 9 dan ST?
Jawapan mudahnya: Azlan Ghanie, adalah Lok 9 dan Lok 9, adalah ST dan ST, adalah Azlan Ghanie.
Untuk menceraikan antara satu dengan yang lain agak sukar. Disebabkan itulah pengasas-pengasas kaedah di Barat sering mengambil nama sendiri sebagai kaedah tersebut.
Alexander Technique diasaskan F. Matthias Alexander, Feldenkrais Method diasaskan Moshe Feldenkrais, Pasteurisation diasaskan Louis Pasteur. Bukannya kerana menimbulkan riak, tetapi mereka sedar, betapa rapatnya kaitan kaedah itu dengan pengalaman hidup, ilmu dan perwatakan mereka.
Namun, orang Timur lebih malu mengaku sebegitu, maka jarang sekali kita dapati sejenis silat dinamakan sendiri oleh pengasasnya dengan namanya, atau sesebuah tariqat dinamakan sendiri pengasasnya. Mungkin juga, tren itu semakin berubah.
Maka, pada saya, tidaklah salah jika kita namakan Senaman Azlan, kerana segala apa yang kita tuntut, adalah sulingan daripada ilmu, pengalaman dan kajian guru Azlan sepanjang 50 lebih tahun hidup di muka bumi.
Kita hanya menagih ilmu secara percuma tanpa perlu mengharungi zaman badan kering kurang dari 50kg, sakit-sakit, pengalaman bermain pelbagai jenis sukan, dilanda strok selama beberapa tahun, kehilangan punca rezeki, dicuba guru silat dan beladiri lain secaraan zahir dan batin dan entah apa-apa lagi yang tidak diberitahu kepada kita.
Jika ada yang terdetik, apakah ini artikel memuji guru Azlan? Inilah kebenarannya. Beliau tidak memerlukan pujian daripada kita. Sultan dan ulama sendiri sudah memujinya. Artikel ini adalah artikel menyedarkan, kepada kami yang tidak tahu menghargai ilmu yang disampaikan beliau, kadangkala secara percuma, dan jika ada yang tidak tahu pengorbanan yang dilakukan, bacalah.
Ilmu silat diri dan keluarga disimpan rapi, dan diajar percuma kepada sesiapa yang menuntut daripadanya, ketika zaman majalah PENDEKAR, majalah SENI BELADIRI: orang biasa, guru silat, pesilat olahraga negara, polis, tentera, pengawal peribadi, ulama, peniaga, ahli politik dan ramai lagi.
Tetapi, bila semakin ramai yang meminta (termasuk guru silat lain yang menggalakkan), guru Azlan bagaikan 'terpaksa' menzahirkan Silat Melayu Keris Lok 9 buat umum, padahal itu ibarat perbuatan menelanjangkan diri. Mengadakan kelas silat mengambil masa daripada pencarian rezeki dan keluarganya. Ketika itu, maklum sahaja guru silat tiada yang kaya dengan silat. Ini pengorbanan pertamanya.
Punyalah menarik ilmu dalam diri guru Azlan ini, hinggakan ada orang yang tertarik hanya kepada beberapa bahagian sahaja dan nak menuntut yang itu sahaja. Ada jurulatih yang berkata, silat saya tiada permainan keris. Bolehkah saya serapkan kaedah Lok 9 dalam mengajar murid saya? Guru Azlan setuju.
Maka, dibukakan kepada umum buat pertama kali di Hotel Vistana pada 2 Februari 2002 semasa Seminar Antarabangsa Pertama Keris Melayu di mana ilmu permainan keris diajar terbuka tanpa perlu menjadi ahli Lok 9 dan diulangi pada tahun seterusnya. Pengorbanan kedua.
Kemudian, timbul pula minat pesilat untuk belajar Senaman Tua sahaja, padahal bagi pesilat Lok 9 yang awal, tiada perbezaan ST dan Lok 9. ST adalah pemanas badan untuk melakukan gerak silat. Maka, gerak silat sudah terlatih semasa bersenam. Ada yang mencadangkan agar diasingkan dan diajar sehingga ke tahap jurulatih untuk diserapkan ke dalam silat berlainan. Adakah bapa yang sanggup berkongsikan anaknya kepada umum? Adakah guru silat yang sanggup berkongsikan ilmunya menjadi hak awam?
Pada awal Jun 2003 diadakan untuk lebih 30 peserta, kursus kejurulatihan Senaman Tua yang melayakkan mereka mengajar ST di mana-mana di Malaysia. Tiada royalti dikenakan. Apa yuran dikenakan, terpulang kepada mereka. Mereka hanya tidak dibenarkan menukar nama ST, atau menyalahgunakan logo ST. Pengorbanan ketiga.
Sehingga kini, guru Azlan masih turun padang, dan sendiri mengajarkan ST kepada umum, padahal jurulatih di kawasan itu sendiri boleh saja melakukannya. Tapi mereka tetap memanggilnya turun.
Mereka yang hanya belajar ST akan mendapat satu kekuatan, kefahaman dan kecergasan yang mungkin tidak pernah dialami, lagi-lagi jika tidak pernah menuntut silat. Tetapi, bagi pesilat Lok 9, mereka lebih memahami asal usul ST dan kaitannya dengan Lok 9, kelebihannya, kegunaannya dan kemahirannya.
Pendek kata, jika menuntut ST, akan dapat satu. Jika menuntut Lok 9, akan dapat semua.
Jadi, apa kaitannya antara Lok 9 dan ST? Tiada kaitan, kerana ia sememangnya tidak berpisah, ibarat bunga dan buah dilahirkannya.
Dipetik dari http://senaman-tua.blogspot.com/
Nafas Melayu: Key To Locked Doors
Thursday, June 17, 2010 9:21 AM
Several years ago, I was triply privileged to work at SENI BELADIRI magazine. The triple privileges were the fact that the founder and managing editor of the magazine, Guru Azlan Ghanie, was also the founder of Silat Melayu Keris Lok 9 and Senaman Tua.
During those amazing years, I felt like a live-in student, and if there was ever any martial art that was deeply imprinted onto my psyche and neurological system, it would have to be Lok 9. Senaman Tua was a second bonus, and since both of them shared the same root and founder, it made both easier to learn (Working at the magazine was the third, since I was academically trained as a journalist).
Of the many things within my studies, I have found that there are two key methods that underlie both systems: Nafas Melayu and Tapak 9. As guru Azlan explored Lok 9 on a monthly basis in the magazine, I began to worry that he might eventually publish what I jealously regarded as the core of his system.
I selfishly asked that if he wanted to share Lok 9 on paper, that he avoid revealing these two outside of teaching it personally in class, to avoid it being 'stolen' by others. For a while, he seemed to agree with the request, but later on decided that it belonged to everyone who wanted to learn it and published both of them in full glorious detail in his gem of a book, entitled Senaman Tua (Melayu). Since then, people have sat up and taken notice.
Among the two, the more practically interesting one is Nafas Melayu, simply because it provides a very effective method to focus breathing for a variety of purposes. I have studied a few other breathing methods, but none so far as comprehensive as this.
I don't intend to teach Nafas Melayu in this article, nor explain it too deeply, for fear that someone might practice it incorrectly. I only want to share in the ways that Nafas Melayu has helped in my life. Thus, I reserve the right to absolve myself of all responsibility.
Nafas and muscle groups
The Nafas involves inhaling deeply and compressing the abdominals as if you were doing crunches while standing. Immediately apparent is the posture-correction that happens. There are two key muscle groups involved in this: the transverse abdominus (TA) and the erector spinae (ES).
The erector spinae are located at the lower back while the TA wraps around the lower abdomen in a tube-like shape. For many years, sports scientists disregarded the function of the TA and only recently realised its role in keeping the back straight. Unfortunately, when the abdominals become weak, it puts pressure on the the ES and causes lower back pain. Therefore, good posture doesn't actually come from the back, but from exercising the TA via the Nafas.
I was unaware of the role TA played until it was brought to my attention by Mohamed Azlan Zain, one of the few ST instructors who has an ACE (American Certificate of Exercise).
The breathing mechanism of the lungs also incorporate the ability to increase in size and absorption rate depending on the environment and condition of the body. For example, a child who grows up in high altitude has to extract more oxygen from the thin air than his brethren who live further down. His lungs first adapt, increasing in capacity, later in the ability to absorb more and more oxygen from the air, in order to meet his body's needs.
Pesilat who can only train close to sea level, simulate this by practising holding their breath for extended periods of time under water, breathing while running or as in the case of Lok 9 and Senaman Tua, holding the breath compressed in the lungs while performing a set of bunga or a wardance.
In reality, this method is dangerous and can cause many physiological problems including rupturing blood vessels, damage to the lungs, brain cell death and many others. There is strong scientific research against breath holding and I greatly recommend that anyone who wants to learn this, properly train with qualified instructors.
The traditional Nafas Melayu is taught in staggered stages over a period of six months before progressing and many pesilat don't even get that far. It is definitely not a rushed process.
The first time I learned Nafas Melayu, I was surprised by its simplicity and wondered if it was everything it claimed to be. Unfortunately, I was a lazy student and didn't practise it much. I realised much later, that if you wanted to learn to swim, you needed to be thrown in the water.
Over the next several years, I was provided opportunities to put Nafas Melayu to work. When I started becoming involved in physical fitness training with a local wellness company, I was pleasantly surprised to discover the link between glucose and cholesterol levels caused by stress and breathing.
Fight or Flight
I decided to research deeper into the matter and found that Nafas Melayu provided a powerful stress buster compared to other breathing methods. The more traditional Oriental breathing called for inhalation and expansion of the abdominal (stomach) muscles while Nafas Melayu called for a contraction, a totally inverse reaction. I soon discovered why.
Oriental breathing aims for calmness by relaxing the body, breathing in slowly and exhaling slowly. This helps to relax the body and mind. Unfortunately, when faced with a perilous situation, the body experiences panic and unlocks the Fight-or-Flight mechanism, which increases the heart rate, dumps glucose and adrenaline into the blood stream, dilates the pupils of the eyes (creating tunnel vision) and more. This causes the body to go on a high state of alert.
One of the key responses of the body is that the stomach suddenly contracts, in Melayu, called kecut perut, or a sudden abdominal contraction that indicates fright, fear, surprise or shock. In reality, it is a totally physiological response, not an emotional one. But it could be, if we allow it to.
Because of the speed of this reaction, relaxation breathing techniques are pretty much useless, unless you have time to avoid and oncoming truck. The sudden contraction prepares your body for action, a sort of spring load that is ready to be channeled to the rest of the body.
Now, when you practice purposely contracting in Nafas Melayu, you gain greater control in separating the emotional reaction from the physiological reaction, and the more familiarity you have in using it, the easier your body and mind will recognise that it is a signal for you to take action.
Fight-or-Flight also causes two related problems: it drains blood away from the brain and into the body and it causes hearing to shut down and tunnel vision. The biological need is apparent. It allows you to focus your brute strength on one target and shuts out other irrelevant stimulus, but in a pesilat, the decision making process needs more oxygen and blood to the brain and sharp sense provide more options. Nafas Melayu takes care of both of this as it returns control to the brain.
Physical/ psychological reeducation
The one thing that surprises almost everyone who comes into contact with ST is how much of a physical reeducation system it is. By this, I mean that ST is not just an 'exercise' in the modern sense of the word, but it encapsulates everything good about the physical training of silat.
Moshe Feldenkrais, the founder of the Feldenkrais Method of physical reeducation was of the opinion that the adult human has been modified so many times by social pressure that they no longer walk, talk, act and breathe the way they naturally should. He believed that by reeducating the physique, you could potentially modify the psychological self-image and return it to its natural state. This is also true for ST.
For many years, I chimed guru Azlan's idea that ST was a way to return to one's natural physique. It didn't occur to me how true this was until many years later. When taught in class, the physical/ physiological benefits are apparent. But when you have those quiet moments with the exercises, you are able to work through what is truly part of you and what isn't.
The Nafas plays a guiding role for the body to identify what is right and what is wrong about your current physical makeup. It allows the correct tendons to tear and heal itself, and it tells you when you're in your danger zone. The only difficulty that many will face in doing this, is to cultivate a listening ear to actually hear it speaking to you.
More than can be said
In reality, there is too much left unsaid about ST, and every instructor will give you a different view from different experiences. As for me, Nafas Melayu has allowed me to be acquainted with myself, both physically and physiologically. At times, what it has shown me was shocking and other times, comforting.
It's been a long 13 year journey, but I'm glad to see that I am now part of a larger community of practice. Hopefully, it keeps growing, and more people gain benefit from this effort.
Senarai Jurulatih Bertauliah Senaman Tua
Wednesday, June 16, 2010 1:49 PM
PEMEGANG AMANAH UTAMA
Guru Azlan Ghanie
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